Emission tests examine two main types of emissions from passenger cars and vans. The first type is carbon dioxide (CO2), which has a relationship to fuel consumption, while the second type comprises pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particles (number of particles and total mass of particles).
- Lab tests measure CO2 emissions from cars and vans to verify that a manufacturer’s new vehicle fleet does not emit more CO2 on average than the targets set by the European Union. The target for average CO2 emissions of a car manufacturer’s fleet (that is all the cars produced by that manufacturer) is set at 95g CO2 per kilometre (95g/km) for 2021 and at 147g/km for vans. Moreover, the laboratory test also enables customers to make comparisons between vehicles in terms of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption.
- Lab tests ensure that a single car does not emit any more pollutants than allowed by the European Union’s emissions standards (Euro standards). In addition, the new Real Driving Emissions test makes sure that cars deliver low pollutant emissions, not only in the laboratory but also on the road.
- Euro standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of each new vehicle sold in the EU. They are established through European Union Regulations and, through the years, these standards have introduced increasingly stringent maximum levels for pollutant emissions. The latest standard (Euro 6) establishes a maximum limit of 80 mg of NOx per kilometre.