Ensuring that cities and urban areas are fluid and mobile is a fundamental basis of European transport policy.
As European citizens live in an increasingly urban setting, cities around Europe are facing ever greater challenges caused by congestion, pollution and traffic accidents. From this perspective, the automotive industry has already started researching and developing new and creative solutions to enhance and improve urban mobility while reducing the environmental impact of its vehicles.
A balanced approach is the only way to treat the complex interrelationships and trade‐offs that are involved in urban transport. Measures to restrict traffic may have economic and social consequences that must be weighed up. Access Restriction Schemes (ARS) in general, and Low Emission Zones (LEZs) in particular, must not hinder mobility by increasing costs. Their implementation has to avoid disrupting businesses, increasing inequalities between city and suburban residents, singles and families, residents and non‐residents.